Nationalism, or the social movements of nationalities striving to acquire, maintain, and enhance their status in a world where they are confronted by opposition or conflict, has a vast historical literature to its credit.
The scientific study of nationalism must build upon but go beyond the particularistic knowledge of specific cases, on the one hand, and avoid lumping together all instances of nationalism, on the other hand. This paper suggests a tentative typology of European nationalisms which, it is hoped, may find wider applicability. The typology is based upon the characteristic form that conflict and opposition take and the corresponding self-and group-consciousness which it generates. The four types of nationalism here presented are hegemony nationalism, particularistic nationalism, marginal nationalism, and the nationalism of minorities.